Chikyu vessel set a new world record for drilling the ocean floor

Chikyu vessel set a new world record for drilling the ocean floor
Agency for Science, Technology Geography Japan (JAMSTEC) officially confirmed the new world record for drilling the ocean floor at a depth of 2111 meters set by vessel Chikyu exploration in waters under Shimokita Peninsula (Japan , Pacific Northwest). Ocean exploration drilling program of IODP Expedition 337 projects with research objectives hydrocarbon system, and explore the formation of natural gas energy resources beneath the sea floor and find answers to scientific questions basic education related to the evolutionary history of the earth. Known previous record belonged to trace drilling conducted in the waters of Costa Rica (2110 meters) and the next target of the probe Chikyu drill reached a depth of 2200 meters below the seabed.   In the past 20 years, scientists have repeatedly drill substrate, sediment on the ocean floor and they discover a world of micro-organisms are abundant. The diverse communities of species of human cells Preliminary (prokaryote) was detected in deep than 1km below the sea floor rocks. Most of these microorganisms can not be cultured or have very little relationship with the world of organisms on the surface. Nowadays people know their presence through specific DNA sequences. Recent research has shed light on how to make these species become distinct from the species on the surface layer of the ocean floor. At the same time, we also have to find out the source of energy that has sustained life in the ecosystem such buried.   About 20 years ago, R. John Parkes and Barry Cragg began a systematic search of the microorganisms in coral reefs. Very soon after, the new stringent testing was conducted on the train explorer and they have shown that the cells found there really is endemic biota seabed. Cytometry technique also allows one to deduce the number of organisms at the bottom of the ocean floor. The results gave a figure is amazing creatures in this underground world from 55 to 85% of the prokaryote biomass on earth and accounts for 30% of the total biomass in general.   First expedition exploration focus to explore this underground world was started in 2002 by ocean exploration drilling program (ODP Leg 201). The goal is tropical eastern Pacific where the depth of the ocean floor to 5000m. By drilling deep into the rock beneath the seabed, the specimen can collect up dating to 35 million years old. At every sampling point, we discovered the prokaryotes (bacteria and archae). The number of cells is reduced from 10 ^ (8) / cm ^ (-3) in the bottom surface to less than 10 ^ (6) / cm ^ (-3) to the ends of the soil, the average number shows the abundance of marine organisms underground is much higher than the amount of organisms in the ocean. In the rock hides a lot of energy with methane and sulfate, the cell number was increased to 10 ^ (10) cm ^ (-3). Source: Ouramazingplanet, JAMSTEC, Internet ...


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